Saturday, May 23, 2020

Short Story - 868 Words

Get up my mom says, we have to go to the Dells to day. But I never heard my alarm go off so why are you waking me up right now, ringgg there it is. I got out of bed and, I ask my mom how long is the drive there. She told me after we pick up our cousins it will be about 4 hours there and back. I replied ok that sounds good. When we got to our cousins house we talked for a little bit then made sure everybody had their stuff so we could get going. My mom said on the way their is anyone hungry because we won’t be eating for awhile. So we had a few snacks on the way up there. When we got there it was just opening and the lines were really short about 3 or 4 people in a line it was so nice to have that. We did all of the inside slides right†¦show more content†¦So I said fine if youre scared than I will just go by myself so I did and started walking up the stairs as I saw another person drop my heart starts pumping faster and faster. Than at the top of the stair he said which one the green one or purple one I said purple so I step in the slide and he said cross your legs and cross your arms so I did. The slide counted down 3,2,1 drop I dropped so fast it was so fun I was done with the slide in like 3 seconds that was awesome I said as I sat up. When I got down and back to everyone I said I am doing it again do you want to come they all said no again I said chicken still nobody came. I started walking up the stairs I once again saw somebody drop and scream So I got up there and I said I want to go in the purple one again so I stepped in and it said 3,2,1 drop. This time I wasn’t as nerves it was more fun when I got down the slide I stepped and said that was fun But I am ready to go now so we all went to change and all met up outside. After that we went to the car and went to go and get something to eat at a restaurant because we were so hungry. Once we got back to our cousins house my cousins asked if we wanted to stay over we said sure. So we had some clothes from before so we talked a little bit then my mom left we went down stairs to get all of the bed stuff set up for tonight. It was probably 7:30 right now so we eat some supper and went downstairs to watch a movie before we went to bed.Show MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories â€Å"Miss Brill† and â€Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a wedding† written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words   |  7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words   |  7 PagesThe short stories â€Å"The Idol† by Adolfo Bioy Casares and â€Å"Axolotl† by Julio Cortà ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In â€Å"Axolotl†, the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words   |  6 Pages The End. In the short story, â€Å"Emma Barrett,† the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. The story follows through first person narration by a group member named Holden. This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events

Monday, May 18, 2020

Exercise Benefits Essay - 1237 Words

Christopher Flores March 8, 2011 Mr. Haile 1301.155 Exercise for the Body You know exercise is good for you -- but do you know how good? At its most basic, exercise is any type of physical exertion we perform in an effort to improve our health, shape our bodies, and boost performance (Waehner, Web). Adults, men and women, and teens both benefit from exercise and physical activity in many different ways. Exercise should play a key role in everyone’s daily life, not only does it boost self esteem, it also improves mental health and helps prevent depression, heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type II Diabetes, and, as always, obesity. Most people agree that even though they may not look forward to doing a workout, they tend to†¦show more content†¦In addition, high levels of stress have been linked to weight gain. Whether it’s hitting the gym, swimming a couple laps in your pool, or even taking a brisk walk around your neighborhood, exercise improves mental health and helps prevent depression and anxiety. Exerc ise is a distraction that can get you away from the cycle of negative thoughts that feed anxiety and depression. When one is active, blood and oxygen flow to the brain are increased, growth factors that help create new nerve cells increase to promote plasticity, and chemicals in the brain increase that help cognition, such as, dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate (Physical Exercise, Web). As exercise is increased, energy levels and serotonin are increased, which leads to improved mental clarity (Sarnataro, Web). Studies show that exercise boosts activity in the brains frontal lobes and the hippocampus. Doing something positive to manage anxiety or depression is a healthy coping strategy. Trying to feel better by drinking alcohol, dwelling on how badly you feel, or hoping anxiety or depression will go away on their own can lead to worsening symptoms. Self-esteem is defined as the experience of being capable of meeting life’s challenges and being worthy of happiness (Fresh, Web). Developing healthy self-esteem is a critical component of program aimed at self-improvement. In those who work out in the morning, endorphins, aShow MoreRelatedBenefits Of Exercise. Https://Draxe.Com/Benefits-Of-Exercise/.1662 Words   |  7 PagesBenefits of exercise While doing my research, I found this website that is extremely helpful and it has a lot of information that I need to know about the benefits of exercise. There are tons of benefits that we can get from exercise. It will help our bodies to become stronger, healthier, and stay in shape. It does not cost us anything or one cent to work out. We can work out almost everywhere, like at home, gym, track, and sidewalk. Exercise makes us healthierRead More The Health Benefits of Exercise Essay2957 Words   |  12 Pagesenough exercise to burn off those unwanted pounds. Talk about getting in shape is all over books, magazines, TV shows, newspaper articles and celebrity videos that are all centered around fitness and exercise. I think everyone would agree that exercise and physical fitness are a very important part of our lives, â€Å"...but the truth is most adult Americans do not exercise on a regular basis. And yet, to feel good, look our best and live longer, fuller lives, regular exercise is a must† (Exercise YourRead MoreThe Health Benefits of Exercise Essay791 Words   |  4 PagesLack of exercise is the cause of most health-related issues today. Americans are becoming ill every second from lack of exercise, yet nothing is being done to prevent these diseases. Diet plans and exercise programs are advertised in every corner, yet they are ignored. Many disorders and diseases are pre ventable, and even curable without the aid of modern technology. Regardless, the illnesses are at an all time high and show no sign of declining. What many individuals fail to realize is howRead MoreEssay The Many Benefits of Exercise1513 Words   |  7 Pagesthe lack of education about health and exercise. Exercise has a wide variety of positive effects on the body and mind that can be categorized into three main parts. Part one describes psychological benefits, including the influences exercise has on the mind and its functions, as well as the behavioral changes it presents. Part two explains the physical qualities that exercise can enhance. This effect incorporates the body as apposed to the mind. Exercise affects your overall body appearance andRead MoreBenefits Of Functional Aerobic Exercise1624 Words   |  7 Pagesprepare the body for everyday activities and the unexpected. CrossFit is constantly varied functional movements performed at a high intensity. Millions of pe ople across the globe participate in this high intensity fitness regimen every day. CrossFit exercises consists of performing many simple movements that make up one complex movement. These movements are based on movements that we perform in our everyday lives. The base of all of the complex movements is the core, so it is important to have good coreRead More The Health Benefits of Exercise Essay1659 Words   |  7 PagesExercise is one of the most important factors in a persons’ life. Physical activity, or the lack of it, can result in a person having a healthy life or cause them to have diabetes. The benefits of exercise are countless. The positive health results, the improvement in attitude, even better academic performance are all factors which make not exercising inexcusable. Merely not using a person’s body is harmful. Not being active results in a person’s muscles becoming weak and out of condition. TheRead MoreBenefits Of Physical Exercise For Health1000 Words   |  4 PagesDeclining physical activity is surprising because in the West, it is often believed that many people do exercise. It is true that sports circles and newspaper articles devoted to the benefits of physical exercise for health are more numerous than ever but, overall, the information related to the usefulness of physical activity seem not lead to behaviour change (O Brien et al 2015). Sedentary lifestyles have serious consequences for public health. In particular, in recent years, obesity is increasingRead MorePsychological Benefits Of Regular Exercise1708 Words   |  7 PagesRegular exercise has a massive amount of physical benefits; it reduces a person’s likelihood of heart disease, strokes, diabetes, and high blood pressure, as well as many other conditions caused by obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle. However, there is also many psychological benefits to exercise, particularly in terms of mental health. Deslandes et al (2009) found that regular exercise can decrease the severity of many mental health disorders, including, but not limited to, anxiety, depression, andRead MoreHealth Benefits Of Regular Exercise1266 Words   |  6 Pagesalong with dietary balance are incorporated to achieve the optimal fitness goal. All Fitness gadgets use one major premise which is that regular exercise increases stamina, releases stress, prevents or controls certain c hronic diseases and improves overall appearance. There are many health benefits to regular exercise. The physical aspect of exercise can help prevent excess weight gain and help the shedding of existing weight. Engaging in physical activity burns calories. The intensity level ofRead MoreThe Health Benefits of Exercise Essay826 Words   |  4 Pages Exercise is not just for Olympic athletes or supermodels. In fact, youre never too unfit, too young or too old to do it. Regardless of your age, gender or role in life, you can benefit from regular physical activity. If youre committed, exercise in combination with a sensible diet can help provide an overall sense of well-being and can even help prevent chronic illness, disability and premature death. Some of the benefits of increased activity are Improved Health

Monday, May 11, 2020

Descartes s Meditations On First Philosophy Essay

First published in Latin in 1641, Renà © Descartes philosophical study, entitled Meditations On First Philosophy, poses a question that continues to be both continously relevant, and hotly debated, in the field of philosophy. One of Descartes main queries in his meditations is as follows; how can we be fully assured that we know anything at all? Descarets theorises that, whilst not all knowledge may provide probable doubt, we can never be fully certain that there is no room for doubt, and if we cannot be certain of our knowledge, we therefore cannot truly know anything. With this lack of foundational certainty for knowledge, Descartes then states that the logical next step would be to doubt every single thing that we believe, as without certainty, nothing can constitute knowledge. Certainty plays a pivotal and yet simple role in Descartes argument for global skepticism, yet its role is one that evolves throughout his meditations. Descartes starts off saying that only one thing is tr uly certain - the fact that nothing is certain – and from there goes on to explore what we can and cannot be certain of. Descartes first meditation, subtitled, Of the things which may be brought within the sphere of the doubtful, is, as the name suggests, an exploration of what can be believed for certain – which, according to Descartes, is essentially nothing at all - in regard to our beliefs and assumed knowledge . He begins by putting forward the argument that, having believed manyShow MoreRelatedDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy1295 Words   |  6 Pagesback for centuries, millennia even. Over the years, many great thinkers have struggled to either defend or discredit this belief, a belief that has managed to spread to every corner of the globe. One such thinker is Renà © Descartes. In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes attempts to provide logical reasoning to support the existence of God, both asserting his own claims and defending them against possible objections. A prevalent argument against the existence of God is the simple fact thatRead MoreDescartes s Meditati ons On First Philosophy894 Words   |  4 PagesDescartes opens Meditations on First Philosophy by telling us that in order to purify our knowledge from falsehood we must become radical skeptics, and question everything we know as we clear our minds from what we believe to be true. Descartes soon realizes that this is a major problem. Because if he is doubtful of everything, there is nothing to be known as true and he would have no foundation to build his thoughts off of. Pondering this, he came to realize that he himself must be real becauseRead MoreDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy986 Words   |  4 Pagesinwards, or as Renà © Descartes would call it, meditation. These ‘meditations’ are moments of reflection, time spent with one’s thoughts, and time to figure out where one is placed within the world. During one of these meditations, Descartes creates the phrase, â€Å"cogito ergo sum†, I think, therefore I am, in his monumental book, Princip les of Philosophy, though it was written in another form earlier, â€Å"ego sum, ego existo†, I am, I exist, in his book Meditations on First Philosophy. This phrase, put soRead MoreDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy917 Words   |  4 PagesIn Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes introduces the dualistic idea of a sharp split between mind and body. This mind-body split is a Western secular idea and discounts many important aspects of the human experience. Descartes argues that, â€Å"†¦a body, by its very nature, is always divisible. On the other hand, the mind is utterly indivisible† (Descartes, 56). This idea that there is a distinct difference between the mind and the body is nonsensical from both a phenomenological and a scientificRead MoreDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy1299 Words   |  6 PagesIn the third part of his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes makes an argument for mentally proving the existence of God. Having pr eviously established the he exists and thinking thing, he then uses his method of clear and distinct perception, combined with a number of additional ideas he introduces in the chapter, to make his case. He produces an argument with some merit in its reasoning, though it is still able to be critiqued. Descartes engages in an effort to use what he attained inRead MoreRene Descartes s Meditation On First Philosophy802 Words   |  4 PagesRenà © Descartes objective in Meditation on First Philosophy is to construct philosophy as a solid methodical study and discipline alike the sciences. To do so he must first suspend belief in all things doubtful and from their go about verifying the true concepts of the world. In meditation II he verifies that he is a thinking thing and finds that the certainty of the cogito â€Å"I think therefore I am† lies in the distinct perception of what he affirms. From this he generates a general rule of evidenceRead MoreAnalysis Of Rene Descartes s Meditations On First Philosophy 1399 Words   |  6 PagesPhilosophy Essay 1 Rene Descartes was born in in La Haye, France, in 1596 and he studied at La Fleche Jesuit College and University of Poitiers. Descartes also lived in Germany, Holland and Sweden. He then worked in the army as a private councillor and then as a court philosopher. Descartes book ‘Meditations on First Philosophy’ was first published in 1641. The edition used to write this essay was edited by John Cottingham and was published by the Cambridge University Press in 1996. Descartes wasRead MoreAnalysis Of Rene Descartes s Meditations On First Philosophy1066 Words   |  5 Pagesis reality? Among these writers were Renà ¨ Descartes and George Berkeley, who respectively argued that everything perceived must be real due to God being unable to deceive, and that the physical world only exists in one’s mind. In my view, it is not certain that the physical world is real, but one should act as if it is. Renà ¨ Descartes, in Meditations on First Philosophy, wrote each section after successive â€Å"meditations.† In Descartes’s first meditation, he claims it is unable to be proven whetherRead MoreMachiavelli s The Prince And Descartes s Meditations On First Philosophy2245 Words   |  9 Pagesphilosophers Machiavelli’s The Prince and Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy were revolutionary in terms of setting knowledge on new foundations. In the literary work The Prince Machiavelli details the guidelines that leaders should adhere to in order to maintain stability in their controlled lands by accurately summarizing the nature of humans as being ungrateful, vain, and selfish individuals. While Descartes in his work Meditations on First Philosophy ventures on a journey to decipher the relationshipRead MoreDescartes’ Cogito Argument Successfully Shows the Evil Demon Argument is Unsound888 Words   |  4 PagesDoes Descartes’ Cogito a rgument successfully show that the Evil Demon Argument is unsound? In this essay I will attempt to show that the philosopher, Renà ¨ Descartes’ Cogito Argument successfully proves the Evil Demon Argument to be unsound. By an analysis of the structure of the arguments and what they prove, I will show the evil demon argument to be unsound. An argument is unsound when the premises as false and the argument is invalid. This analysis of both structure and content will eventuate

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The French Health Care System - 1548 Words

ï ¿ ¼! The French health care system was once a redundant, poor system that was less than satisfactory in providing care to its patients. Now, though, it is among the best in the world - and other countries have taken note. Canada, specifically as a post-industrial nation, has a poor health care system when compared to its European counterparts. Thus, Canada’s overall health would be better if we were to shift to French-style practices in the health section of the welfare state.! ! ! Its important to understand the context in which we are comparing countries. France and Canada share a number of similarities in socio-economic function, however, significant differences in population density, wealth and geographical influences are present. Canada has much colder weather on average than either of the other two countries, and is also arguably the most affluent. Canada had the highest income per capita in USD based on average exchange rate in 2013. These differences present some challenges to our comparison, however, for convenience, most of the data will be represented in a percentage or per-capita rate. The Canadian medical system has remained much the same over the past few decades. The current system, a Single Payer system, uses a straightforward way of billing. The government pays the physicians directly for the work they do, without the patient seeing the costs (Deber). There have been a number of issues associated with the use of this type of system, including the issue ofShow MoreRelatedThe French Health Care System2758 Words   |  11 Pagesage, which is 66%, French slightly lower (64%). However, the number is still better than most of the OECD countries such as the USA (OECD, 2013). In terms of health, life expectancy at birth in France is 82 years, which is higher than the OECD average (80 years). Specifically, life expectancy for females is 86 years while the figure for males is 79 (OECD, 2013). In 2000, the World Health Organisation (WHO) generated the annual report of which the theme was the health care system performance all overRead MoreWorld Health Organization Of The United States1197 Words   |  5 PagesWORLD HEALTH REPORT The World Health Organization carried out the first ever analysis of the world s health systems in June 2000. Using five performance indicators to measure health systems, it found that France provides the best overall health care, among the 191 member states surveyed followed amongst major countries Italy, Spain, Oman, Austria and Japan. Furthermore, the report found the U.S. health system ranked 37 out of 191 countries according to its performance. A number of factors explainRead MoreThe High Quality Of Health Care1133 Words   |  5 PagesThe average quality of health care in the U.S. is significantly more inaccessible than in other developed countries. The U.S. in aggregate spends significantly more on its healthcare industry, relative to other developed nations, and yet not all Americans have access to adequate health care services. In the present essay I compare the healthcare system in France with the U.S. system in regard to the Triple Aim framework (improving quality of care , improving the health of populations, and reducingRead MoreA Comparative Analysis of the Health Care System in France vs. the United States1318 Words   |  6 PagesA Comparative Analysis of the Health Care System in France vs the United States Introduction Everyone would agree that a good health system, above all, must contribute to good health. It is certainly not considered acceptable to protect or improve the average health of the population, if at the same time inequality worsens or remains high because the gain accrues disproportionately to those already enjoying better health. The responsibility of a health care system is also to reduce inequalitiesRead MoreBritish and French Health Care Essay example1507 Words   |  7 Pagesout the world today health care is a major issue in just about every country. Britain and France are no exception to this rule. Since a very long time ago there have been long standing battles between the people and governments as to how far the governments must go to provide adequate health care for its people. For the upper and middle classes health care usually comes with no problem but for the lower classes they are forced to depend on government assistance. In France health policy making takesRead MoreEssay on british and french health care1480 Words   |  6 Pagestoday health care is a major issue in just about every country. Britain and France are no exception to this rule. Since a very long time ago there have been long standing battles between the people and governments as to how far the governments must go to provide adequate health care for its people. For the upper and middle classes health care usually comes with no problem but for the lower classes they are forced to depend on government assistance. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In France health policyRead MoreSicko: Health Insurance1226 Words   |  5 Pagesanother health care system for the US? Sources : The movie ‘Sicko’ Outline Introduction What is the movie about? 1st body paragraph Topic sentence: What is wrong about the American health care system? Support: 2nd body paragraph Topic sentence: What are the possibilities to change it? Support : 3rd body paragraph Topic sentence: And if they are going to change it, which healthcare system would they take as an example? Conclusion: The health care system in theRead MoreHealth Care System in France 1715 Words   |  7 Pagesthe health care system throughout the world, while the United States of America (U.S) is ranked 37th (Sharipo, 2008). U.S currently spends around 8,233 dollars per person on health care (Kane, 2012). France spends on average 3300 dollars per person on health care (Sharipo, 2008). Nevertheless, the U.S still spends 17.6 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) goes to the health care system, while France spends 11.4 percent (Kane, 2012). If U.S spends 17.6 percent of the GDP on the health careRead MoreThe Healthcare System Between France And U.s Essay1565 Words   |  7 Pages The Healthcare System Between France and U.S.A: A Comparative Approach for a Better understanding Rida Khlifa University of Central Florida Author Note This paper was prepared for Health Care USA 3111 taught by Professor Yara Asi Abstract This Paper approaches aspects of the US healthcare system in a comparative analysis with the French one. The comparison and contrast analysis touches base with the basic health outcomes and their statistics, including measures suchRead MoreSimilarities Between France and Canada’s Health Care System846 Words   |  3 PagesMany would agree that a worthy, controlled health system, above all, should essentially contribute to good health. The responsibility of a health care system is that the organization of people, institutions, and resources deliver the health care services required and meet the health needs of focus populations. Another duty that the health care systems stimulate is the reduction of inequality to race, gender, social status and religion. Each health care system is different when looking at specific countries

Differnce Between Online and Physical Shopping Free Essays

Introduction Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre As we know that online shopping is the easy way shopping but also there are certain advantages as well as disadvantages. To overcome the technological challenges as well as global challenges most of the business organizations are running towards ecommerce or e-business. We will write a custom essay sample on Differnce Between Online and Physical Shopping or any similar topic only for you Order Now For the shopping of the two items I choose malla emporium and muncha. com to buy Saree and amazon. com and GS electronics to buy watch. While going to shopping I was unknown that what kind of saree to buy so I went in muncha. com for online shopping of saree . There I got different types of saree which can fulfill my requirement. So I choose chiffon saree with blouse set. After then I moved to malla emporium for shopping of same that type of saree. There they show almost all kind of saree but I couldn’t find the saree like that which I got in muncha. It was so difficult to select saree and quality of it and while selecting there is a loss of time also but while doing by online it was easy and less time consuming. Another good that I would like to buy was watch. For watch I went to amazon. com which is a much known online business site. When I moved to amazon. com I was confused that which kind of watch I should buy. So I search watch at first then I saw titan watch which I like very much so I select that. To buy watch I went to GS electronics where there is showroom of watch. There I looked for the same watch but it was too difficult. I got titan watch but I couldn’t get the same one and the price rate was so different. 2. Shopping Comparison between Online and Physically In this world human being always prefer change. And by keeping in view this thing, there is another drastic change we see in shopping. Now a day we saw two types of shopping. The first is done by physically and the second is done by online. Attributes of shopping modes Characteristics Attributes Physical Shopping Online Shopping Information/Gathering ShoppingTravel cost- When I go to malla emporium for shopping there is a requirement of travel cost. No travel cost- While I do shopping through ebay, travel cost is not required. I can get a service in one click. Travel time- In the physically shopping we’ve to reach upto that store so there is loss of time. No travel time- As we do shopping by online then we can do shopping by one click in our home itself so time will be saved. More shopping fun- person have different view point. So while doing shopping physically we can enjoy. Less shopping fun- Online shopping is done by one click staying at a place so it’s not so fun. Less information certainity- That’s not sure that every shopkeeper tells the truth about the product so we cannot get full information about the product. More information certainity- We can get the real information that we want about the products in online shopping. Purchase/ TransactionHigher Purchase Price- When we do shopping by physically we’ve to charge high price because there is hidden cost like rental, inventory, labor cost. Lower purchase price- Online shopping help us to get a services in a reasonable price then physically shopping. Less distrust feelings caused by transactions. More distrust feelings caused by transactions. Transactions are mostly made by cash but in some place there are used of visa, debit cards. Transactions only occurred through master cards, credit cards, visa, debit card. Delivery timeNo delivery time- We can get the services by hand to hand so no delivery time is required. Delivery time- While doing shopping through online there is requirement of time for delivering of goods to us. Less inconvenience caused by delivery. More inconvenience caused by delivery. 3. Conclusion/ Recommendation Based on the project leading individuals to reallocate their time and money resources, this study examined the time and cost attributes of shopping modes, and explored the tradeoff between these two attributes, i. e. , the value of time, by assuming that consumers were faced with a shopping mode choice between physical store shopping and e-shopping. The final estimated value of time include two types: the value of travel time to shopping places, physical stores as far as this study concerned, and the value of waiting time for the delivery of purchased products. Of course consumers’ concern toward e-shopping is not only about time and cost. Some psychological aspects, such as information uncertainty and transaction security, have been playing an important role in dominating consumers’ e-shopping behavior, and have been even more widely discussed in the literature. However, ecommerce continues to advance, in speed and security in particular, it is generally believed that online information will be to a great extent improving both in quantity and quality in the near future. By that time, consumers’ negative perceptions towards e-shopping, such as information uncertainty and transaction security, may fade away. If this is going to be true, then consumers’ psychological concern over e-shopping may gradually be disappearing in the future. On the other hand, the economic concern over the travel problem; i. . , travel time and travel cost, about physical store shopping, and product delivery problem about e-shopping will ever exist. This makes the value of travel time is more costly then the value of delivery time, this study estimates worth noting. Moreover, this study also found that purchasing online to save travel time and travel cost, which is worth more for avoiding a shopping trip can be very inviting to consumers, even though it is at the cost of waiting for a delivery of purchased products, which is worth an average monetary value. While delivering goods there arises problem. Delivery charge differs according to the goods. First, the value of product delivery time seems to highly depend on the types of products consumers shop and purchase. After all, waiting for a delivery of saree may take more time which I need for the especial party and also while delivering watch also takes time which I had to gift for the birthday f my brother. But also this delivery time is reduce by this online business sites according to the products. According to this project I come to know that online shopping is better for shopping rather than physically shopping because there is saving of time, money and we can get the more information about the products and services which we don’t get from the physically shopping. In the case of security there is strict rules and regulations which help us to get the product safely. How to cite Differnce Between Online and Physical Shopping, Essay examples

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Management †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Management. Answer: Introduction: There is a wide range of ways to describe BCP and DRP. A few organizations address these procedures independently, while others concentrate on a constant process that intertwines the plans. First of all, the most appropriate terms to define are a disaster and business continuity. In the business domain, an accident can be viewed as an occasion that keeps the continuation of necessary business capacities for a predetermined timeframe. In other words, the assessed blackout may constrain disaster declaration. Continuity of Business is one of the ways towards managing the operation of necessary frameworks. Business continuitys objective is to diminish and counteract time of blackout and optimise performance. In this case, B. C. Management is a holistic management process that is used to identify potential impacts that are deemed as a threat to an organization. It also gives a framework for resilience building, ensures a response that is adequate, and safeguards its key stakeholders inter ests, reputation, brand, and value(Gregg, 2013.). This paper will expound on security issues, controls, disaster recovery and business continuity planning. Operational risk and control evaluations are frequently the principal procedure that a firm uses to lead executive hazard administration. The assessment is usually completed without a functional risk management system set up and without much idea being given to high corporate authority around the numerous interlocking procedures of executive risk management. There are several ways of viewing risk and control assessment. The first one is a third party review. The review utilizes a central comprehension of primary goals and procedures together with an independent approval of evaluations. The other way is using facilitated assessments that are done by consultants for outside the company, risk management, and business managers. It utilizes the central comprehension to distinguish and agree on the business dangers with the business. The viability of internal controls is additionally archived, and action plans concur where necessary. Self-assessment is also another way, that is conducted by the business managers. It utilizes the detailed knowledge of individuals in the business to distinguish the business changes and to agree on their observing. Likewise, with facilitated sessions, control viability is additionally surveyed and action plans set up to improve insufficient controls(Blunden Thirlwell, 2013). It is essential for everybody in the group to understand that BCP is one of the most critical remedial authority the administration is supposed to have and to utilize the arranging time frame into a chance in shaping it(Olson, 2014). The Business Continuity Plan is something aside from restorative powers. It is additionally about preventive and analyst controls A survey can likewise be finished in a roundtable setting. Indeed, this gathering culmination may bestow collaboration to the procedure, giving the groups elements take into consideration communication opening and the needed essential people would be able to arrange and meet to examine what effect particular sorts of interruptions would have on the association. The significance of the consideration of each must be accentuated because the administration won't know about first critical undertakings for which they don't have direct oversight. Risk Analysis Matrix A risk assessment matrix is a diagram that plots the seriousness of an occasion happening on one hub, and its likelihood happening on the other. One can likewise organize the model as a table, where the hazard probability and effect are segments, and the dangers are recorded in lines. By picturing existing and potential risks along these lines, they can evaluate their impact, and furthermore distinguish which ones are a most astounding need(Broder Tucker, 2011). From that point, they can arrange to react to the dangers that need the most consideration. For one to place a risk in the assessment matrix, they put a rating to its severity and likelihood. They then plot it in the suitable position in their chart or refer the grade in their table. The standard classifications used when addressing severity are insignificant, minor, moderate, critical and catastrophic issues. Likelihood classifications are strange, seldom, occasionally, likely and definite occurrences(Broder Tucker, 2011). After placing each risk in the matrix, one can give it an overall ranking according to risk severity. Risks that have severe adverse outcomes and are profoundly prone to happen get the most noteworthy rank while risks with both low effect and low probability get the least rank. Hazard rankings consolidate effect and likelihood evaluations to enable one to distinguish which risks represent the most significant general risks(Hayes, Kotwica, Correia, 2013). A few organizations utilize a numeric scale to assign more particular risk rankings. However, most rankings fall into a couple of general classifications, which are frequently color-coded. Analysis and Mapping of Risks The accomplishment of a Disaster Recovery Plan can only be achieved when an office has staff that is educated, disaster issues and procedures that are arranged. A drawn up approval statement clarifies the organizations help for disaster planning process to all workers. Illuminating the arrangement's objectives and targets with the goal that top administration's expectations are the first order(Tsay, 2013). The plan is incorporated with particular techniques that reach colleagues and interchanges, vendors, support agencies, advisors, and anyone that is contracted by exceptional disaster and understandings are as a result. It must also include both big and small disasters and individual and group-wide cataclysmic events, for instance, tornados and widespread flooding must be addressed (Jasper, 2008). The arrangement should likewise characterize to the extent that business intrusion what makes up a disaster; along these lines, approving the initiation of the disaster recovery plan. A DR plan maps out the way toward proceeding standard business processes, remaking vital and other vital documents and hardware, and becomes a guide for all decision-makers and representatives during and after a calamity(Watters, 2014). The critical components of the arrangement fall into three classifications: the ones that are regular to every area of the settlement; the ones that relate principally to the revival of business operations; and the ones that link primarily to the remaking of vital information. Risk Monitoring Risk monitoring should be the last stage in BCP. It is supposed to make sure that the organization's business continuity plan is executable by performing BCP tests at least yearly, putting the BCP in the main review or audit, and keeping Business Continuity Plan up to date based on changes to employees and the external and internal environments(Blancher, 2013). The evolution of methodologies examination needs a choice of work concerning the test point and recurrence expected to guarantee recovery goals may be accomplished during an interruption and disaster.Testing procedures are supposed to give the stipulations and repeat for examining applications and work limits, which include the aiding information handling (Leitch, 2008). The system should join examination goals, contents, and timetables, and furthermore, oblige reexamination and uncovering of axam results. Administration should plainly describe what limits, systems, or techniques will be attempted and what should constitute a substantial examination. The examination programs goal is to make sure that the BCP stays correct, pertinent, and in operation to opposing terms.Testing is supposed to consolidate applications and organizational works that are perceived in the midst of the impact investigation(Bellalah, 2010). The work influence resolution chooses the recovery point goals and recovery time goals that by then aid in deciding the correct recovery tactics. Management is also obligated to build an examination plan for each BCP test strategy utilized. The exam plan ought to recognize quantifiable estimations of each exam goal. It is supposed to be checked on before the examination to guarantee it will be actualized as outlined without jeopardizing the generation condition. Management should also prepare to survey a content for each trial before trying to recognize shortcomings which may provide inadmissible or invalid tests. As a considerable part of the review method, the testing outline should be updated to speak to any movements to the significant workforce, approaches, frameworks, workplaces, equipment, outsourcing associations, traders, or different parts that influence an essential business work(Liz Taylor, 2014). That helps to avoid any surprises in case of an actual disaster. The testing plans suspicions ought to be approved to guarantee they are fit for work coherence necessities. The approval needs the support of necessary work , performance, and innovation faculty. Risk Contingency Plan The above is described as a preparation of the plan, or a course of activities, in case an adverse risk takes place. To have an idea already in position results in the project team thinking ahead as to the action that is supposed to be considered when a dangerous event occurs. Contingency can likewise be shown in the venture spending plan, as a detail to ensure unforeseen costs(Simonovic, 2012). The sum of the contingency budget is restricted to the high probability dangers. Assessing the value if a risk happens and multiplying it by the likelihood controls it. For instance, a hazard is evaluated to bring about an extra price which could be $50,000, and the possibility of happening is 80%. The sum that ought to be incorporated into a financial plan for the one thing is $40,000(Bachar, 2017). Related to an alternate course of action, are starting and stopping triggers. A starting trigger is an occasion that would actuate the alternative course of action, while is the criteria to conti nue normal operations is a stopping trigger (Calder Watkins, 2010.). The two ought to be recognized in the Risk plan and can be inserted, for instance; the stop trigger can be incorporated into the contingency plan field. It is an associated display that portrays and manages the relating segments of a media transmission or dealing with framework with no regard to the essential inward structure and progression. Its goal is the interoperability of several communication structures with standard customs(Oshana Kraeling, 2013). The model posts a memo framework into contemplating sheets. The important kind of the model portrayed seven sheets. The basic impression of OSI is the technique for communication between two points of end in a media program structure can be secluded into seven unique social gatherings of associated points of confinement. Each passing on client or program is a PC that gives those seven sheets of limit. So in a message between consumers, there could be a surge of material down through the sheets in the main PC, over the structure and after that up over the sheets in the receiving PC(Young, 2015). The seven point sheets of confinement are specified by a mix of vocations, structures th at are working, sort out card contraption drivers and structures association apparatus that empowers a structure to put a pennant on a structure connector out finished Wi-Fi or area network. Information Security Organization The Board of Directors (BoD) is primarily responsible for all of the corporate governance. Administration and controlling information security risks is a necessary piece of departmental management(Whitman Mattord, 2016). In practice, however, the Board unequivocally gives official work regarding most organizational issues to the Executive Directors, headed by the CEO(Mooney, 2015). Data security exercises ought to be coordinated all through to guarantee predictable use of the security standards, sayings and policy statements. All in all, calamity recuperation proposals for checking, keeping up, and recovery should be made a piece of any talks for securing new rigging, adjusting current equipment, or for taking off upgrades to the structure. The best strategy to accomplish this is to incorporate BCP review into all change organization frameworks. On the off chance that movements are required to the supported plans, they ought to similarly be accounted for and composed using change organization. A unified charge and control structure facilitates the weight. Perceiving and detailing events that speak to a risk to the aftereffect of an undertaking is just the underlying advance. It is comparably fundamental to screen all perils on a booked commence by a hazard administration gathering and provided details regarding in the endeavor status report. References Bachar, R. (2017). Contingency plan. Toronto: Carina Press,. Bellalah, M. (2010). Derivatives, risk management value. Singapore: World Scientific. Blancher, N. R. (2013). Systemic Risk Monitoring ("SysMo") toolkit -- a user guide. International Monetary Fund. Blunden, T., Thirlwell, J. (2013). Mastering operational risk: a practical guide to understanding operational risk and how to manage it. Harlow England: Pearson. Broder, J. F., Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Burlington: Elsevier Science. Calder, A., Watkins, S. G. (2010.). Information security risk management for ISO27001/ISO27002. Cambridgeshire : IT Governance Pub. Engwanda, M. N. (2015). Mobile Banking Adoption in the United States: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. Jones International University, Centennial, CO, USA. Gregg, M. (2013.). CISSP exam cram. Indianapolis, Ind.: Pearson IT Certification. Hayes, B. E., Kotwica, K., Correia, D. (2013). Business continuity : Playbook. Boston: Oxford. Jasper, M. C. (2008). Protecting your business : disaster preparation and the law. New York: Oceana Publications. Leitch, M. (2008). Intelligent internal control and risk management : designing high-performance risk control systems. Aldershot, England : Gower. Liz Taylor. (2014). Practical enterprise risk management : how to optimize business strategies through managed risk taking. Philadelphia, PA : Kogan Page. Mooney, T. (2015). Information security : a practical guide : bridging the gap between IT and management. Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom : It Governance Publishing,. Olson, D. L. (2014). Supply chain risk management : tools for analysis. New York: Business Expert Press. Oshana, R., Kraeling, M. (2013). Software engineering for embedded systems : methods, practical techniques, and applications. Amsterdam : Newnes. Simonovic, S. P. (2012). Risk management. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Tsay, R. S. (2013). Analysis of financial time series. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Watters, J. (2014). Disaster recovery, crisis response, and business continuity : a management desk reference. New York: Apress. Whitman, M. E., Mattord, H. J. (2016). Principles of information security. Australia Delmar. Young, D. (2015). A+ Essentials : OSI Model and Protocol Overview. Nashua, New Hampshire : Skillsoft Corporation.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Physics General Relativity and 19th Century Essay Example

Physics: General Relativity and 19th Century Essay Physics   is a  natural science  that involves the study of  matter  and its  motion  through  spacetime, as well as all related concepts, including  energy  and  force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of  nature, conducted in order to understand how the  universe  behaves. Physics is one of the oldest  academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of  astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics had been considered synonymous with  philosophy,  chemistry, and certain branches of  mathematics  and  biology, but during the  Scientific Revolution  in the 16th century, it emerged to become a unique modern science in its own right. However, in some subject areas such as in  mathematical physics  and  quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics remain difficult to distinguish. Physics is both significant and influential, in part because advances in its understanding have often translated into new  technologies, but also because new ideas in physics often resonate with other sciences, mathematics, and philosophy. For example, advances in the understanding of  electromagnetism  or  nuclear physics  led directly to the development of new products which have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as  television,  computers,  domestic appliances, and  nuclear weapons; advances inthermodynamics  led to the development of motorized transport; and advances in  mechanics  inspired the development of  calculus. SCOPE AND AIMS OF PHYSICS Physics covers a wide range of  phenomena, from  elementary particles  (such as quarks, neutrinos and electrons) to the largest  superclusters  of galaxies. We will write a custom essay sample on Physics: General Relativity and 19th Century specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Physics: General Relativity and 19th Century specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Physics: General Relativity and 19th Century specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Included in these phenomena are the most basic objects from which all other things are composed, and therefore physics is sometimes called the fundamental science. [8]  Physics aims to describe the various phenomenon that occur in nature in terms of simpler phenomena. Thus, physics aims to both connect the things observable to humans to  root causes, and then to try to connect these causes together. For example, the  ancient Chinese  observed that certain rocks (lodestone) were attracted to one another by some invisible force. This effect was later called  magnetism, and was first rigorously studied in the 17th century. A little earlier than the Chinese, the  ancient Greeks  knew of other objects such as  amber, that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible attraction between the two. This was also first studied rigorously in the 17th century, and came to be called  electricity. Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of some root cause (electricity and magnetism). However, further work in the 19th century revealed that these two forces were just two different aspects of one force –  electromagnetism. This process of unifying forces continues today, and electromagnetism and the  weak nuclear force  are now considered to be two aspects of the  electroweak interaction. Physics  is  closely  related to the other natural sciences and, in a sense, encompasses them. Chemistry, for example, deals with the interaction of atoms to form molecules; much of modern geology is largely a study of the physics of the earth and is known as geophysics; and astronomy deals with the physics of the stars and outer space. Even living systems are made up of fundamental particles and, as studied in biophysics and biochemistry, they follow the same types of laws as the simpler particles traditionally studied by a physicist. The  emphasis  on  the  interaction between particles in modern physics, known as the microscopic approach, must often be supplemented by a macroscopic approach that deals with larger elements or systems of particles. This macroscopic approach is indispensable to the application of physics to much of modern technology. Thermodynamics, for example, a branch of physics developed during the 19th century, deals with the elucidation and measurement of properties of a system as a whole and remains useful in other fields of physics; it also forms the basis of much of chemical and mechanical engineering. Such properties as the temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas have no meaning for an individual atom or molecule; these thermodynamic concepts can only be applied directly to a very large system of such particles. A bridge exists, however, between the microscopic and macroscopic approach; another branch of physics, known as statistical mechanics, indicates how pressure and temperature can be related to the motion of atoms and molecules on a statistical basis. Physics  emerged  as  a  separate science only in the early 19th century; until that time a physicist was often also a mathematician, philosopher, chemist, biologist, engineer, or even primarily a political leader or artist. Today the field has grown to such an extent that with few exceptions modern physicists have to limit their attention to one or two branches of the science. Once the fundamental aspects of a new field are discovered and understood, they become the domain of engineers and other applied scientists. The 19th-century discoveries in electricity and magnetism, for example, are now the province of electrical and communication engineers; the properties of matter discovered at the beginning of the 20th century have been applied in electronics; and the discoveries of nuclear physics, most of them not yet 40 years old, have passed into the hands of nuclear engineers for applications to peaceful or military uses. HISTORY OF PHYSICS Although  ideas  about  the physical world date from antiquity, physics did not emerge as a well-defined field of study until early in the 19th century. The  Babylonians,  Egyptians, and early Mesoamericans observed the motions of the planets and succeeded in predicting eclipses, but they failed to find an underlying system governing planetary motion. Little was added by the Greek civilization, partly because the uncritical acceptance of the ideas of the major philosophers Plato and Aristotle discouraged experimentation. Some  progress  was  made, however, notably in Alexandria, the scientific center of Greek civilization. There, the Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes designed various practical mechanical devices, such as levers and screws, and measured the density of solid bodies by submerging them in a liquid. Other important Greek scientists were the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, who measured the ratio of the distances from the earth to the sun and the moon; the mathematician, astronomer, and geographer Eratosthenes, who determined the circumference of the earth and drew up a catalog of stars; the astronomer Hipparchus, who discovered the precession of the equinoxes; and the astronomer, mathematician, and geographer Ptolemy, who proposed the system of planetary motion that was named after him, in which the earth was the center and the sun, moon, and stars moved around it in circular orbits. Little  advance  was  made in physics, or in any other science, during the Middle Ages, other than the preservation of the classical Greek treatises, for which the Arab scholars such as Averroes and Al-Quarashi, the latter also known as Ibn al-Nafis, deserve much credit. The founding of the great medieval universities by monastic orders in Europe, starting in the 13th century, generally failed to advance physics or any experimental investigations. The Italian Scholastic philosopher and theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas, for instance, attempted to demonstrate that the works of Plato and Aristotle were consistent with the Scriptures. The English Scholastic philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon was one of the few philosophers who advocated the experimental method as the true foundation of scientific knowledge and who also did some work in astronomy, chemistry, optics, and machine design. The  advent  of  modern  science followed the Renaissance and was ushered in by the highly successful attempt by four outstanding individuals to interpret the behavior of the heavenly bodies during the 16th and early 17th centuries. The Polish natural philosopher Nicolaus Copernicus propounded the heliocentric system that the planets move around the sun. He was convinced, however, that the planetary orbits were circular, and therefore his system required almost as many complicated elaborations as the Ptolemaic system it was intended to replace (see Copernican System). The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, believing in the Ptolemaic system, tried to confirm it by a series of remarkably accurate measurements. These provided his assistant, the German astronomer Johannes Kepler, with the data to overthrow the Ptolemaic system and led to the enunciation of three laws that conformed with a modified heliocentric theory. Galileo, having heard of the invention of the telescope, constructed one of his own and, starting in 1609, was able to confirm the heliocentric system by observing the phases of the planet Venus. He also discovered the surface irregularities of the moon, the four brightest satellites of Jupiter, sunspots, and many stars in the Milky Way. Galileos interests were not limited to astronomy; by using inclined planes and an improved water clock, he had earlier demonstrated that bodies of different weight fall at the same rate (thus overturning Aristotles dictums), and that their speed increases uniformly with the time of fall. Galileos astronomical discoveries and his work in mechanics foreshadowed the work of the 17th-century English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton, one of the greatest scientists who ever lived. NEWTON AND MECHANICS Starting  about  1665,  at the age of 23, Newton enunciated the principles of mechanics, formulated the law of universal gravitation, separated white light into colors, proposed a theory for the propagation of light, and invented differential and integral calculus. Newtons contributions covered an enormous range of natural phenomena: He was thus able to show that not only Keplers laws of planetary motion but also Galileos discoveries of falling bodies follow a combination of his own second law of motion and the law of gravitation, and to predict the appearance of comets, explain the effect of the moon in producing the tides, and explain the precession of the equinoxes. The  subsequent  development of physics owes much to Newtons laws of motion, notably the second, which states that the force needed to accelerate an object will be proportional to its mass times the acceleration. If the force and the initial position and velocity of a body are given, subsequent positions and velocities can be computed, although the force may vary with time or position; in the latter case, Newtons calculus must be applied. This simple law contained another important aspect: Each body has an inherent property, its inertial mass, which influences its motion. The greater this mass, the slower the change of velocity when a given force is impressed. Even today, the law retains its practical utility, as long as the body is not very small, not very massive, and not moving extremely rapidly. Newtons third law, expressed simply as â€Å"for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction,† recognizes, in more sophisticated modern terms, that all forces between particles come in oppositely directed pairs, although not necessarily along the line joining the particles. Gravity Newtons  more  specific contribution to the description of the forces in nature was the elucidation of the force of gravity. Today scientists know that in addition to gravity only three other fundamental forces give rise to all observed properties and activities in the universe: those of electromagnetism, the so-called strong nuclear interactions that bind together the neutrons and protons within atomic nuclei, and the weak interactions between some of the elementary particles that account for the phenomenon of radioactivity. Understanding of the force concept, however, dates from the universal law of gravitation, which recognizes that all material particles, and the bodies that are composed of them, have a property called gravitational mass. This property causes any two particles to exert attractive forces on each other (along the line joining them) that are directly proportional to the product of the masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particles. This force of gravity governs the motion of the planets about the sun and the earths own gravitational field, and it may also be responsible for the possible gravitational collapse, the final stage in the life cycle of stars. See Black Hole; Gravitation; Star. One  of  the  most  important observations of physics is that the gravitational mass of a body (which is the source of one of the forces existing between it and another particle), is effectively the same as its inertial mass, the property that determines the motional response to any force exerted on it. This equivalence, now confirmed experimentally to within one part in 1013, holds in the sense of proportionality—that is, when one body has twice the gravitational mass of another, it also has twice the inertial mass. Thus, Galileos demonstrations, which antedate Newtons laws, that bodies fall to the ground with the same acceleration and hence with the same motion, can be explained by the fact that the gravitational mass of a body, which determines the forces exerted on it, and the inertial mass, which determines the response to that force, cancel out. The  full  significance of this equivalence between gravitational and inertial masses, however, was not appreciated until Albert Einstein, the theoretical physicist who enunciated the theory of relativity, saw that it led to a further implication: the inability to distinguish between a gravitational field and an accelerated frame of reference (see the Modern Physics: Relativity section of this article). The  force  of  gravity  is the weakest of the four forces of nature when elementary particles are considered. The gravitational force between two protons, for example, which are among the heaviest elementary particles, is at any given distance only 10-36 the magnitude of the electrostatic forces between them, and for two such protons in the nucleus of an atom, this force in turn is many times smaller than the strong nuclear interaction. The dominance of gravity on a macroscopic scale is due to two reasons: (1) Only one type of mass is known, which leads to only one kind of gravitational force, which is attractive. The many elementary particles that make up a large body, such as the earth, therefore exhibit an additive effect of their gravitational forces in line with the addition of their masses, which thus become very large. (2) The gravitational forces act over a large range, and decrease only as the square of the distance between two bodies. By  contrast,  the  electric charges of elementary particles, which give rise to electrostatic and magnetic forces, are either positive or negative, or absent altogether. Only particles with opposite charges attract one another, and large composite bodies therefore tend to be electrically neutral and inactive. On the other hand, the nuclear forces, both strong and weak, are extremely short range and become hardly noticeable at distances of the order of 1 million-millionth of an inch. Despite  its  macroscopic importance, the force of gravity remains so weak that a body must be very massive before its influence is noticed by another. Thus, the law of universal gravitation was deduced from observations of the motions of the planets long before it could be checked experimentally. Not until 1771 did the British physicist and chemist Henry Cavendish confirm it by using large spheres of lead to attract small masses attached to a torsion pendulum, and from these measurements also deduced the density of the earth. In  the  two  centuries  after Newton, although mechanics was analyzed, reformulated, and applied to complex systems, no new physical ideas were added. The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler first formulated the equations of motion for rigid bodies, while Newton had dealt only with masses concentrated at a point, which thus acted like particles. Various mathematical physicists, among them Joseph Louis Lagrange of France and Sir William Rowan Hamilton of Ireland extended Newtons second law in more sophisticated and elegant reformulations. Over the same period, Euler, the Dutch-born scientist Daniel Bernoulli, and other scientists also extended Newtonian mechanics to lay the foundation of fluid mechanics. Electricity and Magnetism Although  the  ancient  Greeks were aware of the electrostatic properties of amber, and the Chinese as early as 2700 bc made crude magnets from lodestone, experimentation with and the understanding and use of electric and magnetic phenomena did not occur until the end of the 18th century. In 1785 the French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb first confirmed experimentally that electrical charges attract or repel one another according to an inverse square law, similar to that of gravitation. A powerful theory to calculate the effect of any number of static electric charges arbitrarily distributed was subsequently developed by the French mathematician Simeon-Denis Poisson and the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. A  positively  charged  particle attracts a negatively charged particle, tending to accelerate one toward the other. If the medium through which the particle moves offers resistance to that motion, this may be reduced to a constant-velocity (rather than accelerated) motion, and the medium will be heated up and may also be otherwise affected. The ability to maintain an electromotive force that could continue to drive electrically charged particles had to await the development of the chemical battery by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. The classical theory of a simple electric circuit assumes that the two terminals of a battery are maintained positively and negatively charged as a result of its internal properties. When the terminals are connected by a wire, negatively charged particles will be simultaneously pushed away from the negative terminal and attracted to the positive one, and in the process heat up the wire that offers resistance to the motion. Upon their arrival at the positive terminal, the battery will force the particles toward the negative terminal, overcoming the opposing forces of Coulombs law. The German physicist Georg Simon Ohm first discovered the existence of a simple proportionality constant between the current flowing and the electromotive force supplied by a battery, known as the resistance of the circuit. Ohms law, which states that the resistance is equal to the electromotive force, or voltage, divided by the current, is not a fundamental and universally applicable law of physics, but rather describes the behavior of a limited class of solid materials. The  historical  concepts of magnetism, based on the existence of pairs of oppositely charged poles, had started in the 17th century and owe much to the work of Coulomb. The first connection between magnetism and electricity, however, was made through the pioneering experiments of the Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Oersted, who in 1819 discovered that a magnetic needle could be deflected by a wire nearby carrying an electric current. Within one week after learning of Oersteds discovery, the French scientist Andre Marie Ampere showed experimentally that two current-carrying wires would affect each other like poles of magnets. In 1831 the British physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered that an electric current could be induced (made to flow) in a wire without connection to a battery, either by moving a magnet or by placing another current-carrying wire with an unsteady—that is, rising and falling—current nearby. The intimate connection between electricity and magnetism, now established, can best be stated in terms of electric or magnetic fields, or forces that will act at a particular point on a unit charge or unit current, respectively, placed at that point. Stationary electric charges produce electric fields; currents—that is, moving electric charges—produce magnetic fields. Electric fields are also produced by changing magnetic fields, and vice versa. Electric fields exert forces on charged particles as a function of their charge alone; magnetic fields will exert an additional force only if the charges are in motion. These  qualitative  findings were finally put into a precise mathematical form by the British physicist James Clerk Maxwell who, in developing the partial differential equations that bear his name, related the space and time changes of electric and magnetic fields at a point with the charge and current densities at that point. In principle, they permit the calculation of the fields everywhere and any time from a knowledge of the charges and currents. An unexpected result arising from the solution of these equations was the prediction of a new kind of electromagnetic field, one that was produced by accelerating charges, that was propagated through space with the speed of light in the form of an electromagnetic wave, and that decreased with the inverse square of the distance from the source. In 1887 the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz succeeded in actually generating such waves by electrical means, thereby laying the foundations for radio, radar, television, and other forms of telecommunications. See Electromagnetic Radiation. The  behavior  of  electric and magnetic fields in these waves is quite similar to that of a very long taut string, one end of which is rapidly moved up and down in a periodic fashion. Any point along the string will be observed to move up and down, or oscillate, with the same period or with the same frequency as the source. Points along the string at different distances from the source will reach the maximum vertical displacements at different times, or at a different phase. Each point along he string will do what its neighbor did, but a little later, if it is further removed from the vibrating source. The speed with which the disturbance, or the message to oscillate, is transmitted along the string is called the wave velocity. This is a function of the medium, its mass, and the tension in the case of a string. An instantaneous snapshot of the string (after it has been in motion for a while) would show equispaced points having the same displaceme nt and motion, separated by a distance known as the wavelength, which is equal to the wave velocity divided by the frequency. In the case of the electromagnetic field one can think of the electric-field strength as taking the place of the up-and-down motion of each piece of the string, with the magnetic field acting similarly at a direction at right angles to that of the electric field. The electromagnetic-wave velocity away from the source is the speed of light. The  apparent  linear  propagation of light was known since antiquity, and the ancient Greeks believed that light consisted of a stream of corpuscles. They were, however, quite confused as to whether these corpuscles originated in the eye or in the object viewed. Any satisfactory theory of light must explain its origin and disappearance and its changes in speed and direction while it passes through various media. Partial answers to these questions were proposed in the 17th century by Newton, who based them on the assumptions of a corpuscular theory, and by the English scientist Robert Hooke and the Dutch astronomer, mathematician, and physicist Christiaan Huygens, who proposed a wave theory. No experiment could be performed that distinguished between the two theories until the demonstration of interference in the early 19th century by the British physicist and physician Thomas Young. The French physicist Augustin Jean Fresnel decisively favored the wave theory. Interference  can  be  demonstrated by placing a thin slit in front of a light source, stationing a double slit farther away, and looking at a screen spaced some distance behind the double slit. Instead of showing a uniformly illuminated image of the slits, the screen will show equispaced light and dark bands. Particles coming from the same source and arriving at the screen via the two slits could not produce different light intensities at different points and could certainly not cancel each other to yield dark spots. Light waves, however, can produce such an effect. Assuming, as did Huygens, that each of the double slits acts as a new source, emitting light in all directions, the two wave trains arriving at the screen at the same point will not generally arrive in phase, though they will have left the two slits in phase. Depending on the difference in their paths, â€Å"positive† displacements arriving at the same time as â€Å"negative† displacements of the other will tend to cancel out and produce darkness, while the simultaneous arrival of either positive or negative displacements from both sources will lead to reinforcement or brightness. Each apparent bright spot undergoes a timewise variation as successive in-phase waves go from maximum positive through zero to maximum negative displacement and back. Neither the eye nor any classical instrument, however, can determine this rapid â€Å"flicker,† which in the visible-light range has a frequency from 4 ? 014 to 7. 5 ? 1014 Hz, or cycles per second. Although it cannot be measured directly, the frequency can be inferred from wavelength and velocity measurements. The wavelength can be determined from a simple measurement of the distance between the two slits, and the distance between adjacent bright bands on the screen; it ranges from 4 ? 10-5 cm (1. 6 ? 10-5 in) for violet light to 7. 5 ? 10-5 cm (3 ? 10-5 in) for red light with intermediate wavelengths for the other colors. The  first  measurement of the velocity of light was carried out by the Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer in 1676. He noted an apparent time variation between successive eclipses of Jupiters moons, which he ascribed to the intervening change in the distance between Earth and Jupiter, and to the corresponding difference in the time required for the light to reach the earth. His measurement was in fair agreement with the improved 19th-century observations of the French physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau, and with the work of the American physicist Albert Abraham Michelson and his coworkers, which extended into the 20th century. Today the velocity of light is known very accurately as 299,292. 6 km (185,971. 8 mi sec) in vacuum. In matter, the velocity is less and varies with frequency, giving rise to a phenomenon known as dispersion. Maxwells  work  contributed several important results to the understanding of light by showing that it was electromagnetic in origin and that electric and magnetic fields oscillated in a light wave. His work predicted the existence of nonvisible light, and today electromagnetic waves or radiations are known to cover the spectrum from amma rays, with wavelengths of 10-12 cm (4 ? 10-11 in), through X rays, visible light, microwaves, and radio waves, to long waves of hundreds of kilometers in length. It also related the velocity of light in vacuum and through media to other observed properties of space and matter on which electrical and magnetic effects depend. Maxwells discoveries, however, did not provide any insight into the mysterious medium, corresponding to the string, th rough which light and electromagnetic waves had to travel. Based on the experience with water, sound, and elastic waves, scientists assumed a similar medium to exist, a â€Å"luminiferous ether† without mass, which was all-pervasive (because light could obviously travel through a massless vacuum), and had to act like a solid (because electromagnetic waves were known to be transverse and the oscillations took place in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation, and gases and liquids could only sustain longitudinal waves, such as sound waves). The search for this mysterious ether occupied physicists attention for much of the last part of the 19th century. The  problem  was  further compounded by an extension of a simple problem. A person walking forward with a speed of 3. 2 km/h (2 mph) in a train traveling at 64. 4 km/h (40 mph) appears to move at 67. 6 km/h (42 mph), to an observer on the ground. In terms of the velocity of light the question that now arose was: If light travels at about 300,000 km/sec (about 186,000 mi/sec) through the ether, at what velocity should it travel relative to an observer on earth while the earth also moves through the ether? Or, alternately, what is the earths velocity through the ether? The famous Michelson-Morley experiment, first performed in 1887 by Michelson and the American chemist Edward Williams Morley using an interferometer, was an attempt to measure this velocity; if the earth were traveling through a stationary ether, a difference should be apparent in the time taken by light to traverse a given distance, depending on whether it travels in the direction of or perpendicular to the earths motion. The experiment was sensitive enough to detect even a very slight difference by interference; the results were negative. Physics was now in a profound quandary from which it was not rescued until Einstein formulated his theory of relativity in 1905. Thermodynamics A  branch  of  physics  that assumed major stature during the 19th century was thermodynamics. It began by disentangling the previously confused concepts of heat and temperature, by arriving at meaningful definitions, and by showing how they could be related to the heretofore purely mechanical concepts of work and energy. Heat And Temperature A  different  sensation is experienced when a hot or a cold body is touched, leading to the qualitative and subjective concept of temperature. The addition of heat to a body leads to an increase in temperature (as long as no melting or boiling occurs), and in the case of two bodies at different temperatures brought into contact, heat flows from one to the other until their temperatures become the same and thermal equilibrium is reached. To arrive at a scientific measure of temperature, scientists used the observation that the addition or subtraction of heat produced a change in at least one well-defined property of a body. The addition of heat, for example, to a column of liquid maintained at constant pressure increased the length of the column, while the heating of a gas confined in a container raised its pressure. Temperature, therefore, can invariably be measured by one other physical property, as in the length of the mercury column in an ordinary thermometer, provided the other relevant properties remain unchanged. The mathematical relationship between the relevant physical properties of a body or system and its temperature is known as the equation of state. Thus, for an ideal gas, a simple relationship exists between the pressure, p, volume V, number of moles n, and the absolute temperature T, given by pV = nRT, where R is the same constant for all ideal gases. Boyles law, named after the British physicist and chemist Robert Boyle, and Gay-Lussacs law or Charless law, named after the French physicists and chemists Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles, are both contained in this equation of state. Until  well  into  the  19th century, heat was considered a massless fluid called caloric, contained in matter and capable of being squeezed out of or into it. Although the so-called caloric theory answered most early questions on thermometry and calorimetry, it failed to provide a sound explanation of many early 19th-century observations. The first true connection between heat and other forms of energy was observed in 1798 by the Anglo-American physicist and statesman Benjamin Thompson who noted that the heat produced in the boring of cannon was roughly proportional to the amount of work done. In mechanics, work is the product of a force on a body and the distance through which the body moves during its application. The First Law of Thermodynamics The  equivalence  of  heat and work was explained by the German physicist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz and the British mathematician and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, by the middle of the 19th century. Equivalence means that doing work on a system can produce exactly the same effect as adding heat; thus the same temperature rise can be achieved in a gas contained in a vessel by adding heat or by doing an appropriate amount of work through a paddle wheel sticking into the container w